What is chmod? Instructions for installing and using Chmod correctly

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Chmod 755, Chmod 777 are terms that only Linux users know. Let’s find out what Chmod is and install it in the following article.

If you are an administrator of a website whose host is located on a Linux server, or merely a Linux user, you will sometimes get the error “You do not have the permissions to modify this file” when deleting or editing the file. And when searching for a remedy on Google, most people came up with the suggestion of configuring Chmod 775 to 777. So what is Chmod?

What is chmod
Chmod (short for Change Mod) means a command used to set permissions to view, delete, or modify, change on file or directory.

With Permission permission, Chmod is the action used to change the rights of three types of actions taken on a file or folder. Specifically:

  • “Read” (Read file or folder): abbreviated as “r”, is indicated by the number 4. With this permission, you can only view the file, and can not edit or change the content of the file. As for the same folder, you can only view the files in the folder, but can not perform deleting, editing or adding any new files to the folder.
  • “Write” (Write / Edit file, folder): abbreviated as “w”, is indicated by the number 2. When authorized, you can edit or change the content of the file. Similarly for folders, you also have the right to delete or add other files to the folder.

Note: Write permission for a folder allows the user to delete files in the folder even if the user does not have Write permission on the file itself.

  • “Execute” (Execute): abbreviated as “x”, and represented by the number 1. This permission is used when you want to run any file (usually script file format). For folders, use Execute to restrict or allow changes to the current folder.

Chmod can also change manipulation of files or folders for the following groups of objects:

  • “Owner”: this is the owner of the file or folder. Usually it is the creator of those files and directories. In Linux, the files and folders you created in your Home directory will belong to you, unless you transfer this permission to another user.
  • “Group”: is the group of users with the same permissions.
  • “Public / Others / Everybody”: the remaining users use the same system.

What is Chmod 755?
Chmod 755 for directories ie:

7 = 4 + 2 + 1: As the number represents the rights, this means that the folder owner has the right to read (4), edit (2) and list the files or subfolders. in the directory (1).

5 = 4 + 0 + 1: group members have the right to read; List files or subfolders within the directory.

5 = 4 + 0 + 1: The remaining people have the right to read the mail listing the files or subfolders inside the folder.

Similarly, you can easily understand what is chmod 777. Specifically:

  • The first 7 digits used to grant the owner rights.
  • The second No. 7 grants Group rights
  • Number 7 3rd to grant rights to Others.

Thus, 777 means that all users in the system will have full rights: read, write and execute.

Install chmod
First, log into your cPanel site admin account

Then choose “File Manager”.

Next, the interface of “File Manager” appears as follows.

To set the chmod command for each file or folder, click the “Perms” column or select “Change Permissions” by right-clicking, and then changing the parameters.

And to proceed to set the chmod command for all folers or files, select “Select all”, then right click select “Change Permissions”, then proceed to customize. Note that the whole chmod installation will not set a separate chmod command for each folder and file with its own configuration parameters (this will be overcome when installing chmod via FTP protocol).

How to set chmod via FTP protocol
To set the chmod command via FTP protocol, you need to have file management software such as Filezilla, Cute-pro, Flash FXP … These are software that manages the files operating on the FTP protocol. If not, install them.

In this example only Filezilla is mentioned. You enter the login parameters, then click “Quickconnect”. Note that these parameters are exactly the same as the cPanel admin login information, they differ only in the “Host” section. For host, enter your server’s IP server or domain pointing to the host.

If you follow the steps above and click OK, the chmod will only work for the “Admin” folder.

In case you click “Recurse into subdirectories”, select “Apply to all files and directories”, the parameters in the “Numeric value” will be applied to the entire folder and the files in the folder. And the way this chmod absolutely does not affect any parameters that you have previously configured in the “Admin” folder.

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